[tags: Black Civil Rights in America]

[tags: Black Civil Rights in America]

Oncea group of individuals has a consensus on the social issues being addressed anda movement has formed, four things help formation continue. The first is havinga preexisting communications network within the social base of the movement(Freeman, 1983). This network consists of groups of previously organizedindividuals who are linked to other organized groups that share common goals(Freeman, 1983). If the communications network is not in place when themovement has started, significant organizing must be done to createrelationships between the various groups in a social movement. During the CivilRights Movement, the black church served as a preexisting communicationsnetworks since it provided an atmosphere where blacks could socialize and formrelationships that would later become essential to the movement's survival. Theblack church represented power in the black community and black preachers werewell respected. The relationship between Southern black churches and preachersprovided significant networks, which led to the creation of the SouthernChristian Leadership Conference (SCLC), a minister and church-based CivilRights organization. Black ministers, exclusively male, led the SCLC, whichaffected its ability to sustain extensive female leadership involvement.

This era brought with it many of the seminal events in civil-rights history: the start of the Freedom Rides in 1961, the University of Mississippi’s admission of its first black student, and the Birmingham riots of 1963.

Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson, fought hard to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This was the most far-reaching and comprehensive civil rights legislation Congress had ever passed. It banned discrimination in public accommodations and the workplace but did not address police brutality or racist voting tests. To fight against black voter discrimination, the SCLC organized a march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. The six hundred protestors reached the Pettus Bridge but were pushed back by police violence and tear gas. The attack was dubbed Bloody Sunday. President Johnson was ultimately forced into action, calling on Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

[tags: Black Civil Rights in America]

Relatedto Turner and Killian's theory of the development of social movements, anothertheory, contentious collective action, lies at the roots of all socialmovements and revolutions because it acknowledges that collective action canonly develop when participants recognize their common interests (Tarrow, 1994).The disruptive power created by such a collectivity can effectively "challengeauthorities, foster solidarity, and create uncertainty," which leads to socialchange (Tarrow, 1994). The collective action demonstrated in the Civil RightsMovement challenged authorities via the segregation protests that came in manyforms. One example is Bull Connor's, an Alabama sheriff in the 1960s, use offire hoses and vicious dogs to deter March protesters. Connor, a staunchsegregationist and authority figure, felt challenged, like other Southerners,by black Americans' attempts to have racial equality. A sense of solidarity wasfostered among Civil Rights activists as they suffered Connor's attacks,arrests, and death threats that resulted from a common belief in a cause forjustice. The use of actions that challenged local and national authorities toreconsider U.S. race relations created uncertainty in the minds of Americansabout what the future would hold for America if institutional and overt racismwere not addressed.

[tags: Black Civil Rights in America]

Yet it is clear that the church, like all social organizations, is changing. It is also clear that the debate about what the church is highly charged by competing ideas about what it to be. Should it carry forward the prophetic imperative of the civil rights movement, the collective mandate for social change? Or should it focus on personal prosperity and individual economic advancement? Some influential black ministers and televangelists have promoted the prosperity gospel, sending the message that God wants you to be rich and that wealth is a sign of divine favor. The prosperity gospel is sometimes linked to a social conservatism that opposes homosexuality, gay rights and same-sex marriages. In the 2004 presidential race, Republican strategists courted these preachers with success.

[tags: Black Civil Rights in America]

[tags: Black Civil Rights in America]

While many if not most White Americans still harbored racist views, few outside the South favored denying Blacks the right to vote and other civil liberties.

[tags: Black Civil Rights in America]

When most people think of the Civil Rights Movement and charismaticleaders, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is the individual that most often comes tomind. His ability to mobilize the masses and inspire them with his speeches andnonviolent doctrine was certainly charismatic. Due to societal gender normsduring the movement, charismatic leaders were mostly black men. The South wasnot ready for women, especially black women, to emerge as the leaders ofhundreds or thousands of people in the Civil Rights Movement. Men had moreaccess to being charismatic leaders because their manhood afforded them asocietal power that attracted more attention. Although men and women couldpossess the extraordinary personalities deemed necessary to be charismatic,women were not able to lead masses or demand obligations because their leadershipwould have not been recognized or legitimated enough to have a massivefollowing. Because the Civil Rights Movement progressed at a time when societyexpected women to be housewives and domestics or secretaries, it was difficultfor women to be embraced as charismatic leaders. To be labeled a charismaticleader implied that one possessed formal leadership. In most Civil Rightsorganizations, men held formal leadership positions. However, women heldinformal leadership positions such as organizers and community. Their socialskills and networks made black women leaders in their own right, gaining thetrust and respect of people in their communities.


Blacks civil rights essay - Goffinet

To defend civil rights for black people meant to prove that “segregation is not only politically, economically and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful.” The moral error begins with the denial of common or equal position in the civil society, and it ends with refusing to some “the honest administration of the government and the impartial administration of justice.” Thus, the examples King used covered the same two categories established by Justice Wilson.

was a major contribution to blacks civil rights

The second category, the impartial administration of justice, provided the most dramatic defense of the theory King defended, for in mounting the argument against the “racial injustice [that] engulfs this community,” King had to bring his case home to the level of domestic economy that revealed precisely how far civil rights had been impaired. The reductio ad absurdum of lunch counter sit-ins to defend the right to enjoy public custom was not meant to show how trivial civil rights claims were but rather how far injustice had penetrated. What was amiss was the ability of American blacks to conduct themselves under the guidance of natural law because of the unnatural (preternatural?) obstruction of their opportunities to do so. That meant no families, properly speaking; no education, properly speaking; no self-government, literally speaking. Where there is no domestic economy there is no political community.

The effects of WW2 on America and Black Civil Rights ..

Traditionally,social movement theory has been applied to social movements without examiningthe ways gender affects the progression of movements. The conditions thatprecipitate individual movement involvement are influenced by positions in thesocial order. For black Americans, racial inequality played a relevant role inencouraging their involvement. In addition to race, living as women in awhite-male dominated society was crucial for black women who got involved inthe movement. These social experiences were incorporated into movement socialdynamics as the Civil Rights Movement formed. According to M. Bahati Kuumba: