Sparta’s strict military upbringing and control of its citizens meant that attempts at rebellion there were brutally quashed. Athens had no such control and, in consequence, no such stability of government.
Much as did Lycertus in Sparta, a lawmaker named Draco in Athens was commissioned to codify and put in writing a system of laws that they hoped would restore order in Attica in the face of the economic privations of the lower classes. Very few of the laws were actually new; more of the newly wealthy were eligible for archonship, and the ‘system’ of feud vengeance was replaced by law. The Senate was to try all cases of homicide. These laws became the origin of the word ‘draconian’, for to get the people to accept legal punishment for killers over their traditional vengeance system, the punishments were drastic. Draco’s laws did nothing to address the real problems in Athens, and by the end of the seventh century, Athens was ripe for revolution.
The revolution, when it came, was remarkable, brought about completely bloodlessly by one man, Solon. According to Plutarch, his father, an Eupatrid of the best blood, had ruined his estates "in doing benefits and kindnesses to other men". Certainly his son had no qualms about enacting laws for the greater good that would damage his personal finances significantly. Solon himself had taken to trade, and in his spare time was a poet. In 594, some representatives of the middle classes persuaded him to accept election as an archon. Nominally he was to be the eponymos, the archon who gave his name to the year; but he was also to be granted extra dictatorial powers. They wanted him to address the economic divide, to write a new constitution, and restore stability to the state. His blood and his wealth persuaded the upper classes that he would be acceptably conservative, and they consented.
A may even displace as humanity’s ancestors, relegating them to a side-branch that went extinct. These are still the early days of investigating human ancestry, and rapidly and dramatically changing ideas about the evolutionary path to humanity will continue. That is partly because the fossil sparseness has only been recently expanded by numerous teams digging around Africa, with dreams of the ultimate find haunting their sleep. Darwin speculated that humans evolved in Africa, but in the early 20th century, Asia was considered the likeliest evolutionary home of humans. In 1921, an , and in 1924 an . Africa became the focus of investigating the human line and accelerated with the work of what became the , which began with checkered but ultimately triumphant career.
Essays comparing and contrasting athens and sparta
The study of intelligence is a young science, and the relationship of brain size (both absolute and relative) and structure to what is called intelligence is currently subject to a great deal of research and controversy, and even the is hotly debated. The appeared with mammals, and is the key structural aspect of brain evolution that led to human intelligence. The attempts to determine which , and those suspected of being the most intelligent have passed the test, including all great apes, cetaceans, elephants, and even a bird. Humans do not pass the mirror test until about 18 months of age. There is great debate between those embracing "rich" versus "lean" interpretations of behavior and intelligence observations among animals, in which seemingly complex thinking can be an illusion.
Athens and Sparta Worksheets: Compare and Contrast Activity …
Speciation has probably been more controversial than extinction. To be fair to Darwin, genetics was not yet a science when was published in 1859. It was not until the by Silesian friar Gregor Mendel that the science of genetics began, but Mendel’s work was until the 20th century. Darwin went to his grave unaware of Mendel’s work. Today, speciation is primarily considered to be a genetic event. But similar to how that dictate their function, and that appear at higher levels of complexity, the DNA code by itself does not explain life, although the popular frames life and evolution as a .
Two Paragraph Essay Comparing And Contrasting Athens And Sparta
For this essay’s purposes, the most important ecological understanding is that the Sun provides all of earthly life’s energy, either (all except nuclear-powered electric lights driving photosynthesis in greenhouses, as that energy came from dead stars). Today’s hydrocarbon energy that powers our industrial world comes from captured sunlight. Exciting electrons with photon energy, then stripping off electrons and protons and using their electric potential to power biochemical reactions, is what makes Earth’s ecosystems possible. Too little energy, and reactions will not happen (such as ice ages, enzyme poisoning, the darkness of night, food shortages, and lack of key nutrients that support biological reactions), and too much (such as , ionizing radiation, temperatures too high for enzyme activity), and life is damaged or destroyed. The journey of life on Earth has primarily been about adapting to varying energy conditions and finding levels where life can survive. For the many hypotheses about those ancient events and what really happened, the answers are always primarily in energy terms, such as how it was obtained, how it was preserved, and how it was used. For life scientists, that is always the framework, and they devote themselves to discovering how the energy game was played.