Japanese people often tell Westerners living in Japan that they have an inferiority complex towards Western culture. Perhaps this stems from the historical circumstances of early contact--during the Meiji era, when Japan's elite were struggling to modernize the country and assimilate Western technology, much as they had with the Chinese hundreds of years before. The strength and wealth of the nations of Europe may have been projected onto their languages as well as cultures, giving rise to radical ideas of changing Japan's national language to English or French. The new foreign loan words, associated as they were with the world's strongest nations and Japan's political and social elite, quite naturally took on certain general attributes of prestige. In order to focus more closely on how these attributes might be reflected in the images of modern Japan, let's turn our attention towards the media.
"Foreign language usage in Japanese mass media is ... one of the main features in the mosaic of modern Japanese culture (Haarman, 1986, 120)". Studies of Japanese commercials and advertising demonstrate that commercial managers employ positive ethnocultural stereotypes, usually of white North Americans or Europeans (Haarman, 1984a and 1984b) in the advertising of numerous products. Multilingual commercial texts used for sentence level communication almost always supplement the native Japanese with English or French, whereas Italian, Spanish, and German tend to be used in background music, very short utterances, or the naming of products. Though all of these languages share a general prestige, Haarmann (1984b and 1986) feels that Japanese society ranks them in the order: English, French, Italian, and then German. English evokes an image of quality, reliability, (Haarman, 1984a and 1984b) and modern living (Haarman 1986 and Loveday, 1986); French communicates elegance, most often in women's products; Italian brings to mind simple elegance and speed; Spanish projects masculine charm and wild female tenderness; and German suggests tidy, industrious people in a pleasant rural setting. The texts and expressions used in these commercials are not intended to be understood by the ordinary Japanese, and aren't. Although individual lexical items might be understood, the major portion of the text is simply used to create an image and attach prestige value to the products being advertised. In Haarman's opinion, the English language attracts much more general prestige than French or any other foreign language. Kloss (1969) has termed this kind of multiple language use "impersonal bilingualism".
In addition to those students who study English as a foreign language in Japan, there has been an increasing number of Japanese living abroad. Figures for 1977 show that more than 19,000 school- age children were living abroad (Japan Overseas Educational Services, 1977 cited in Higa, 1977). At that time 8,000 of them were attending Japanese schools established by the government, seven thousand were attending Japanese language schools on the weekends, and the remaining four thousand were not attending any Japanese schools. Many of these children were returning to Japan more fluent in a foreign language than in Japanese. Back in Japan the chief concern or annoyance of teachers conducting special classes for these children was their foreign behavior, not their Japanese language ability. Public opinion seems to be divided between those that want them to get rid of their non-Japanese behavior and those that appreciate the diversity it provides (Goodman, 1990). With all the public concern and special programs being set up for returnees, there is increasing evidence that, far from being a disadvantaged minority within Japanese society, they are in fact becoming a new, fashionable, international Japanese elite.
In this Creative English course, students will develop their written skills by writing metro diaries, controversial essays, fables, reviews and sagas, to name a few. They will explore their creative sides as well as gain the important language skills they need in order to strengthen their writing. The course will develop students’ writing, grammar, and critical thinking skills through the context of of creative writing. Students will be encouraged to find and develop their own personal writing style within a structured writing class that incorporates grammar, style, vocabulary, and form.
Importance of English language in our life - Essay and speech
In the intermediate levels you will improve English speaking and listening skills through small group activities and lively classroom discussion. You will learn to express ideas in diverse social situations and build vocabulary in a wide range of subjects. At the upper levels, you will progress through Speaking Dynamics, refining expressive language skills, debate and use of persuasive language. You will achieve Speaking Excellence by developing strategies for critical thought by delving into controversial issues. Improve use of complex language structure such as irony, problem solving and debate. You will work on becoming proficient in English by participating in Discussion Circles that aim to build native-like fluency using sophisticated vocabulary in dynamic discussions on topics such as art, sports, psychology, food, science and technology.
English as a Second Language | Free Essay For You
Our discussion here shows that English, and to a lesser extent other foreign languages, are used by Japanese in Japan in a myriad of ways. Is it as some have claimed used only "as a tool for absorbing the fruits of Foreign civilization" (Kunihiro, 1973 cited in Jorden, 1977)? Certainly this could explain why language schools and educational programs in the mass media are so popular. And magazines with foreign titles might sell better, because people feel that the Western nations are a rich source of knowledge and information. The Japanese who had the most direct access to these valuable sources might well form an elite within Japanese society, as seems to be happening with bilingual children returning from overseas. And, of course, the corollary of such a strategy would be to keep non-Japanese from becoming proficient in the national language and to avoid putting any information into foreign languages or even easily accessible Japanese, like foreign loan words.
Essay on Importance of English Language in India
Scots was a special case. In 1500 Scotland and England were separate countries and during the sixteenth century Scots can be regarded as a language distinct from the English spoken south of the border. In Scotland under James IV (1488–1512) there was a cultural flourishing, with the beginnings of Renaissance influence from the continent. After the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 the status of Scots declined. The court moved to London with the king, so that Scots lost its social prestige. Moreover writers like John Knox, who were in the forefront of the Scottish Reformation (1560) and greatly influenced Scottish literary culture, wrote mainly in southern English. Already, around 1590, the number of books printed in Edinburgh in English had overtaken those printed in Scots and after 1603 Scots ceased to be a book language.