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The people at home continue to rely on their relatives abroad for remittances to provide education, shelter, and daily maintenance, especially where the domestic economy has denied its citizens any means of making a living. Indeed, remittances are largely responsible for the sustenance of many Caribbean societies. Yet emigration has its disadvantages for the sending society. In 2003 the United Nations conducted a study on the "brain drain" from developing nations. The study cited the Caribbean as a region that was losing too many of the best and brightest to emigration.
Caribbean people have made major contributions in all fields of American society. This post-1965 migration to the United States was predominantly female, compared to the male-dominated emigrations of the Caribbean past. Women used the nursing profession, for example, to become heads of hospitals, nursing homes, and other health care institutions. Yvonne Graham, a former nurse and founder of the Caribbean Women's Health Association in Brooklyn, was elected deputy borough president of Brooklyn in 2002. Similarly, Caribbean immigrants and their descendants play important roles in the labor unions, educational system, and other aspects of life in the United States.
In 1963 the thirty–two heads of newly independent states created, in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), the Organization of African Unity (OAU), an organization inspired by Kwame Nkrumah's vision of the United States of Africa. Its goal was to decolonize the rest of the African colonies, fight apartheid, and promote cultural unity on the continent. Lacking an armed force to enforce decisions and committed to the principle of non–interference with national sovereignty, the OAU was powerless to resolve crises in Uganda, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Somalia. Yet it provided support for anti–colonial militants of Southern Africa in exile. It also provided the structure for the launching of the African Development Bank in 1967, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in 1975, and the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) in 1980. While SADCC and ECOWAS have both been instrumental in negotiating development loans, in 1990 ECOWAS launched ECOMOG, a peacekeeping force known for its interventions in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, and Rwanda.
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Caribbean countries made several attempts to pick up the pieces left by the unsuccessful federation and create some type of unified political system. There were some visible successes. The most important were the University College of the West Indies (later the University of the West Indies), the regional shipping service, and the Caribbean Meteorological System. A milestone was the creation in 1967 of the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) in Antigua. The CARIFTA Secretariat and the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) were created to help CARIFTA and integration in general. CARIFTA succeeded in its main mandate to increase intraregional trade. Yet Caribbean people recognized that, in light of the growing threat to preferential markets in England, they had to push for deeper integration. The leaders met in Chaguaramas, Trinidad, in 1972 and created the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM). CARICOM came into official existence in 1973 with protocol based on the Georgetown Accord. At first, the member states of CARICOM were former British colonies, but Suriname joined in 1996 and Haiti in 2002. Other members of CARICOM are Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas (a member of the Community but not the Common Market), Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. Associate members of CARICOM are Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands. CARICOM's main goals areeconomic integration through a common market and common trade policies,functional cooperation (pooling resources and sharing services), and coordination of foreign policies.
The League of Nations was supposed to help keep the peace.
The mineral revolution that took place in the 1870s and 1880s in southern Africa increased the latent conflicts, not only between the African majority and the white community, but also between the Boer and the English settlers. By 1910 the Union of South Africa, having obtained internal self–government, began devising segregationist policies to maintain white domination over mining and the land. Black South Africans resisted the job color bar, restrictions put on their occupation of the land, and the abolition of voting rights in parliamentary elections. They also founded powerful trade unions as well as the first modern African nationalist party, the African National Congress (ANC) in 1912.
As his idea took root, it grew into the League of Nations.
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A region rich in diamonds, copper, and uranium, South West Africa was ruled since 1915 by South Africa and subjected to apartheid, though it was a United Nations Trust Territory. In 1960 the South–West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) launched a campaign of guerrilla activities against the South African occupation of the land in defiance of the United Nations resolution. Angola's 1975 declaration of independence was soon followed by the defeat of South African forces, which supported the Angolan UNITA party. South Africans endured another defeat at the 1988 battle of Cuito Cuanavale in southern Angola. U.S. mediation led to a peace agreement, according to which South Africa would end its illegal occupation of South West Africa. SWAPO won the 1989 elections, and Sam Nujoma became the first president of the newly independent nation, Namibia.
[tags: United Nations History War Essays Papers Peace]
Woodrow Wilson the American President came up with the idea of The League Of Nations because he didn't want anything like the world war 1 to be repeated.