About 40-35 kya, a new stone technique, developed from the Neanderthals’ technology and called , appeared in today’s France and Spain. It was succeeded by a new stone tool technology that appeared about 30 kya called Mode 4, or , and the people making those tools also . Aurignacian technology was a Cro-Magnon invention of unprecedented sophistication, with blades instead of flakes. There is considerable uncertainty about the exact dates when those two technologies appeared, but the consensus is that Aurignacian succeeded Aurignacian The Cro-Magnon/Neanderthal controversy is one of the more heated in anthropology, and there are two basic camps on the Neanderthal extinction, just as with the : behaviorally modern humans did it, or climate did it.
By about 45-40 kya, that northward migrating band from the founder group reached Europe. Although the exact route is in dispute, the supports the idea that the group originated from a migration into the , probably via the east end of the Arabian Peninsula. Those invaders are called Cro-Magnons today. When they reached the Levant, they began , and Neanderthals began disappearing. The process took several thousand years at minimum, and has been called a border war with Neanderthals, while others have called it a genetic assimilation. The way that humans drove the megafauna to extinction, and then engaged in warfare as they were driving the megafauna extinction, seems to favor a violent end for Neanderthals, and the “blitzkrieg” of humans migrating across the length and breadth of Australia in a few thousand years was not in evidence for the migration/invasion around the Mediterranean’s periphery. Neanderthals (nor ), do not seem to have gone quietly or easily and may have been the biggest obstacle to Earth’s conquest by behaviorally modern humans.
In the historical period, when technologically advanced humans encountered less advanced ones, there was cultural and genetic interchange, but in the end, the technologically advanced peoples . If any place on Earth could have been used as an illustration of the climate change hypothesis for the megafauna extinctions, ice age Europe would have been it. Ice sheets extended so far southward that Neanderthals lived in relatively few refugia, but I highly doubt that it caused their extinction. Neanderthals lived for at least 300,000 years and survived radical climate changes just fine. Human-agency skeptics have invoked unusually violent climate changes that coincidentally appeared when behaviorally advanced humans arrived around the world, but that seems to be grasping at straws. Again, there is nothing climatically unique about the past 60,000 years, , so invoking climate-change effects for humans and animals that weathered the ice age’s vagaries just fine seems to be a huge conjecture that may be politically motivated. Human-agency skeptics have crafted different kinds of climate explanations for each major extinction, such as drying in Australia, getting colder and dryer in Europe, or getting when most of the extinctions happened. At , climate was a proximate cause, not the ultimate one. The ultimate one was people virtually every time.
In the case of the winter run chinook salmon, the basic disagreement is over the proper use of the state's natural water resource. In other words, is it morally correct (according to the public trust doctrine) for water to be diverted to meet all the needs of cities and agriculture, or should the water needs of fish be included in the public trust? This disagreement is what agriculture spokespeople are referring to when they claim a "moral right to use this water."
9.2.4 The Spotted Owl Conservation Battle
An ethical principle that is important in understanding this debate is the concept of the "public trust doctrine." This means simply that a "sovereign," in this case the state and federal governments, is responsible for preserving the public's rights and interests in the utilization of public natural resources. The sovereign may grant use rights to an organization or an individual, but only when it is in the public's best interest. Fundamental to the public trust doctrine is that the resources, in this case water, are owned by the public. Court cases involving disputes over the proper utilization of publicly owned natural resources are usually decided based on this principle.
[tags: Environment, conservation essay]
All the low-integrity activities in the FE field aside, it has been in a state of arrested development for longer than I have been alive. When the , what made us dangerous was not so much the technology we were working on; we were building a network of businesses that could manufacture and distribute disruptive energy technologies, and lived right down the road from us. If we became too prominent to easily snuff out, plenty of people like Sparky could have come forward. That was the primary threat that we presented, led by and unparalleled courage.
Essay about The Development of Conservation in Theory …
The next level of awareness is where Dennis, Brian, and I spent many years, and Dennis and Brian largely stayed there although I finally had to admit that it did not work and was unlikely to, which led to my current strategy. That . and drank deeply from the wells of their nationalist indoctrination, as . Dennis tried forming movements around Christian ideology early in his journey, and even tried it again in the 21st century. He also tried the “” approach, and almost all of his efforts either involved risk-free () marketing plans, business opportunities, or both. Dennis appealed to in the USA to attract interest in and involvement with his efforts. I to raise awareness of FE, and it was the last time that I will ever try the mass movement approach. Mass movements, by their very nature, appeal to lowest-common-denominator beliefs to form movement () “cohesion.” Unfortunately, those beliefs are usually false, as nationalism, capitalism, and organized religion are built on lies, half-truths, and self-serving myths. Little resembling enlightenment comes from such ideologies. I came to believe that true enlightenment is the missing ingredient, and the necessary prerequisite for such enlightenment is a caring heart. Without that caring heart, .