The twin ideas of efficiency and resilience are important. Efficiency is about getting more for less, particularly energy. Although aerobic respiration’s energy efficiency allowed for to develop, they end up creating interactions and dependencies, and the entire structure can lose its resilience when compared to simpler systems. Remove one part of the food chain and the entire ecosystem can collapse, and it can be part of the chain, from top to bottom. Making systems more efficient, as the last bits of energy are wrung from the system, reduces their resilience to the real world’s surprises. That dynamic is probably a key contributing factor of mass extinctions during the eon of complex life. Modern ecosystems studies are making the connections clear and are being applied to the dynamics of human civilizations; work has been seminal in this regard. Complex ecosystems pass through of exploitation, conservation, release, and reorganization, and three dimensions of interaction are involved: potential, connectedness, and resilience. In general, simple systems are more stable than complex ones, which is another reason why any , if there were any, would have been far less cataclysmic than those of complex life.
But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)
Most marine phyla were unable to manage the transition to land and remain aquatic to this day. Arthropods found a way, and scorpions, spiders, and millipedes were early pioneers. The insect and fish comprise the most successful terrestrial animals today, as fish led to all terrestrial vertebrates. Gastropods made it to land, mainly as and , as did , but the rest of aquatic life generally remained water-bound. Also, many animal clades have moved back-and-forth between water and land, usually hugging the shoreline, sometimes in a single organism’s life cycle, which blurred the at times. The first fish to venture past shore seem to have accomplished it in the , and colonizing land via freshwater environments was a prominent developmental path.
These developments towards a Green Economy are the nexus of the growing needs to develop and further elaborate the economic case for and sustainable development including scaling up labour intensive natural resources management programmes that contribute to decent work and livelihood opportunities.
The Foolproof Conservation Of Energy Resources Essay Format Method
The need for Climate Change action and overall resource management and protection is geared to accelerate the pace of green job creation and overall green investments in the years ahead.
A global transition to a low carbon and sustainable economy can create large numbers of green jobs across many sectors of the economy, and indeed can become an engine of development. South Africa has a rich natural resource base and ranks amongst the top 3 in the world’s most bio-diverse countries.
Conservation of energy resources essay format
Those basics never really changed, and environmental destruction accompanied all civilizations, as razing forests and growing crops could never really be sustainable and certainly could not form the foundation for economically abundant societies. Economic scarcity, which is always rooted in energy scarcity, was as deeply ingrained into all ideologies as thoroughly as those early religions that to reinforce group cohesion. Economic scarcity was and is so pervasive that it is an of of today’s . As with all assumptions, scarcity has become a barely visible framework to adherents of dominant ideologies. If energy were abundant, scarcity-based realities and ideologies would quickly become obsolete, as well as many societal features that are scarcity’s side-effects, such as , , , , and .
TERI: Innovative Solutions for Sustainable Development
The rest of this chapter will trace many important preindustrial developments which helped set the stage for the Industrial Revolution, which is humanity’s fourth and most recent Epochal Event. But until the last few centuries in Europe preceding the Industrial Revolution, the basics among all civilizations did not appreciably change. Agriculture provided a local and stable energy supply that allowed for sedentism, forests were removed to make way for crops, and domestic animals were used to provide labor and/or flesh products, while their manure helped replenish soil nutrients depleted by agriculture. Virtually everywhere that agriculture appeared, so did civilization, with varying levels of urbanity. Elites dominated all civilizations, and they almost always invoked either a divine nature or divine sanction to justify their status, and they always engaged in conspicuous economic consumption. Cities situated on low-energy transportation lanes, which were almost always bodies of water, exploited forested and agricultural hinterlands, which were worked by peasants and slaves, while cities housed professionals and the elite. Forests and agriculture provided the primary energy supply of all preindustrial civilizations, which was usually supplemented with the products and services of domestic animals. All preindustrial civilizations were steeply hierarchical - economically, socially, and politically – and the means of production provided small surpluses that supported a small elite and professional class. Fighting over resources and plunder has been the primary predilection of all civilizations for all time, except for a very brief interlude at the beginnings of .