In this sense, the move to greater gender equality in the 1980s was remarkable. It was not merely a reflection of increased opportunities for younger or more-educated women in relation to comparable groups of men. Moreover, the increase did not occur only at the point of initial hire. It is not surprising, therefore, that conventional methods of explaining the decrease in the gender gap in earnings—those that rely on changing composition of the female workforce by education, potential job experience, occupational skill, and industry—can account for, at most, 20 percent of the increase.
The challenge to unequal gender difference was mounted anew in the 1910s when women in Japans second wave feminism set about to oppose the NeoConfucian ideology of good wife, wise mother. One, Hiratsuka Haruko (pen name Raicho), in 1911 founded the feminist magazine Seito (Bluestocking), where its contributors considered broad social issues such as freedom of love and marriage. Not surprisingly, the magazine was often censored and banned.
By the late nineteenth, early twentieth centuries, serious challenges to accepted beliefs about gender were mounted in both Japan and China. Although concerns about womens position had been expressed earlier, the concept of womens liberation became a major motivating force within the eras nationalist, reform, and revolution movements. Male nationalists initiated the discussion by arguing that an improvement in the status of women was essential to their countrys acceptance by other technologically advanced nations. A core of educated women in both Japan and China joined the call by speaking and writing in public for the first time. Conservative nationalists and traditionalists in Japan and China at different times reacted by mounting long campaigns against any change in gender roles. Ultimately female activists were labeled unseemly, unfeminine, and too western.
The more positive influences of Shintoism were weakened by the samurai culture and spread of Confucianism and Buddhism in Japan. Yet, in the Heian era (950-1050 C.E.) women still held relative equity in marriage, education, and property rights. Gender difference in this period favored literate women who were free to write in the expressive, popular vernacular language, while men most often wrote in the more formal, inaccessible, classical Chinese. Both the independence and the gender limits of women of the pampered elite are wonderfully illustrated in the lively, gossipy writings of , Sei Shogonon, and other Heian female writers.
Different sociologists have given different definitions for gender.
The present study explores gender -related differences in the demographic and gambling -related characteristics of problem gamblers participating in a state-administered (Missouri) casino self-exclusion program between and. Until recently, the topic of gender differences in gambling behaviour has been largely neglected (Mark & Lesieur ). As in some other fields of social inquiry, research within this area has been both ` gender insensitive' and overgeneralised (Eichler ). Gender differences in personal and mental health charac- teristics have been found among gamblers in predominantly Caucasian youth samples, but very little is known about factors Measures associated with gambling among urban.
Essay on the gender difference in history: women in China and Japan.
Alsaleh (2012) notes the lowest rate of female education and the highest levels of gender restrictions of women are most prevalent within Middle Eastern countries that enforce Islamic doctrine.
Here is your short essay on Gender inequality
The essay will discuss criminological theories linking in to how crime is seen in society the differences of each gender having committed the same crime the theories that will be used is, feminist theory which will focus on how mothers end up in prison and also how they are treated differently to fat...