[tags: Ode to the West Wind Essays]

Impulses, uncontrollable, tame-less are all words used to describe the wind in this section.

"The original source of most passages of this sort in English poetry is Aeneid vi 273-81: vestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus Orci / Luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae, / pallentesque habitant Morbi tristique Senectus / et Metus et malesuada Fames ac turpis Egestas, / terribiles visu formae, Letumque Labosque; tum consanguineus Leti Sopor et mala mentis / Gaudia, mortiferumque adverso in limine Bellum / ferreique Eumenidum thalami et Discordia demens, / vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis (Just before the entrance, even within the very jaws of Hell, Grief and avenging Cares have made their bed; there pale Diseases dwell, and sad Age, and Fear, and ill-counselling Famine, and loathly Want, shapes terrible to view; and Death and Distress; next, Death's own brother Sleep, and the soul's Guilty Joys, and, on the threshold opposite, the death-bearer War, and the Furies' iron cells, and savage Strife, her snaky locks entwined with bloody fillets).
See also the description of the Temple of Mars in Statius, Thebaid vii 47-50, which Chaucer imitated in his Knight's Tale and which G[ray]. would meet again in Dryden's Palamon and Arcite (see below): primis salit Impetus amens / e foribus caecumque Nefas Iraeque rubentes / exsanguesque Metus, occultisque ensibus adstant / Insidiae geminumque tenens Discordia ferrum etc. (From the outer gate wild Passion leaps, and blind Mischief and Angers flushing red and pallid Fear, and Treachery lurks with hidden sword, and Discord holding a two-edged blade.)
But G. was indebted to English poets for many of his details. Cp. Spenser, Faerie Queene II vii 22: 'On thother side in one consort there sate, / Cruell Reuenge, and rancorous Despight, / Disloyall Treason, and hart-burning Hate, / But gnawing Gealousie out of their sight / Sitting alone, his bitter lips did bight, / And trembling Feare still to and fro did fly, / And found no place, where safe he shroud him might, / Lamenting Sorrow did in darkness lye, / And Shame his vgly face did hide from liuing eye.' In the previous stanza Spenser had mentioned 'infernall Payne' and 'tumultuous Strife'; and in stanza 25 he described 'selfe-consuming Care'. Cp. also Dryden, Palamon and Arcite ii 480-7 and Pope, Windsor Forest 413-22. G. also appears to have had in mind a passage in Thomson's Spring 278-308, which describes the onset of the passions after man's early innocence in the Golden Age (version of 1730-38): '... the passions all / Have burst their bounds; and Reason, half extinct, / Or impotent, or else approving, sees / The foul disorder. Anger storms at large / Without an equal cause; and fell Revenge / Supports the falling Rage. Close Envy bites / With venomed tooth; while weak unmanly Fear, / Full of frail fancies, loosens every power. / Even Love itself is bitterness of soul, / A pleasing anguish pining at the heart. / Hope sickens with extravagance; and Grief, / Of life impatient, into madness swells, / Or in dead silence wastes the weeping hours. / These, and a thousand mixt emotions more, / From ever-changing views of good and ill, / Formed infinitely various, vex the mind / With endless storm: whence, deeply rankling, grows / The partial thought, a listless unconcern, / Cold, and averting from our neighbour's good; / The dark disgust and hatred, winding wiles, / Coward deceit, and ruffian violence.'"

"The original source of most passages of this sort in English poetry is Aeneid vi 273-81: vestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus Orci / Luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae, / pallentesque habitant Morbi tristique Senectus / et Metus et malesuada Fames ac turpis Egestas, / terribiles visu formae, Letumque Labosque; tum consanguineus Leti Sopor et mala mentis / Gaudia, mortiferumque adverso in limine Bellum / ferreique Eumenidum thalami et Discordia demens, / vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis (Just before the entrance, even within the very jaws of Hell, Grief and avenging Cares have made their bed; there pale Diseases dwell, and sad Age, and Fear, and ill-counselling Famine, and loathly Want, shapes terrible to view; and Death and Distress; next, Death's own brother Sleep, and the soul's Guilty Joys, and, on the threshold opposite, the death-bearer War, and the Furies' iron cells, and savage Strife, her snaky locks entwined with bloody fillets).
See also the description of the Temple of Mars in Statius, Thebaid vii 47-50, which Chaucer imitated in his Knight's Tale and which G[ray]. would meet again in Dryden's Palamon and Arcite (see below): primis salit Impetus amens / e foribus caecumque Nefas Iraeque rubentes / exsanguesque Metus, occultisque ensibus adstant / Insidiae geminumque tenens Discordia ferrum etc. (From the outer gate wild Passion leaps, and blind Mischief and Angers flushing red and pallid Fear, and Treachery lurks with hidden sword, and Discord holding a two-edged blade.)
But G. was indebted to English poets for many of his details. Cp. Spenser, Faerie Queene II vii 22: 'On thother side in one consort there sate, / Cruell Reuenge, and rancorous Despight, / Disloyall Treason, and hart-burning Hate, / But gnawing Gealousie out of their sight / Sitting alone, his bitter lips did bight, / And trembling Feare still to and fro did fly, / And found no place, where safe he shroud him might, / Lamenting Sorrow did in darkness lye, / And Shame his vgly face did hide from liuing eye.' In the previous stanza Spenser had mentioned 'infernall Payne' and 'tumultuous Strife'; and in stanza 25 he described 'selfe-consuming Care'. Cp. also Dryden, Palamon and Arcite ii 480-7 and Pope, Windsor Forest 413-22. G. also appears to have had in mind a passage in Thomson's Spring 278-308, which describes the onset of the passions after man's early innocence in the Golden Age (version of 1730-38): '... the passions all / Have burst their bounds; and Reason, half extinct, / Or impotent, or else approving, sees / The foul disorder. Anger storms at large / Without an equal cause; and fell Revenge / Supports the falling Rage. Close Envy bites / With venomed tooth; while weak unmanly Fear, / Full of frail fancies, loosens every power. / Even Love itself is bitterness of soul, / A pleasing anguish pining at the heart. / Hope sickens with extravagance; and Grief, / Of life impatient, into madness swells, / Or in dead silence wastes the weeping hours. / These, and a thousand mixt emotions more, / From ever-changing views of good and ill, / Formed infinitely various, vex the mind / With endless storm: whence, deeply rankling, grows / The partial thought, a listless unconcern, / Cold, and averting from our neighbour's good; / The dark disgust and hatred, winding wiles, / Coward deceit, and ruffian violence.'"

"Cf. Joseph Warton's Ode to Evening, which contains a number of passages strikingly similar to the Elegy, although - so far as I know - the similarity has not been noticed by editors. Warton's Odes were published in 1746. One stanza in particular Gray may have had in mind when he composed the first stanza of his Elegy:

''Hail, meek-eyed maiden, clad in sober grey,
Whose soft approach the weary woodman loves,
As, homeward bent to kiss his prattling babes,
He jocund whistles thro' the twilight groves.''
Collins's Odes were published the same year as J. Warton's (1746), and the whole atmosphere of Collins's Ode to Evening is similar to that of the Elegy. Cf. especially stanza 10:
''And hamlets brown, and dim-discover'd spires;
And hears their simple bell, and marks o'er all
The dewy fingers draw the gradual dusky veil.''
For Gray's remarks on Warton's and Collins's Odes, see p. 81. Cf. also Ambrose Philips, Pastoral ii, end:
''And now behold the sun's departing ray
O'er yonder hill, the sign of ebbing day.
With songs the jovial hinds return from plow,
And unyok'd heifers, pacing homeward, low.'' "

The "Ode to the West Wind" expresses perfectly the aims and views of the Romantic period.

"Sir H. Wotton, Provost of Eton, the summer before his death visited Winchester College where he had been educated, and when he was returning to Eton, he made the following reflections, as given in his Life by Isaac Walton: -

''How useful was the advice of a holy monk, who persuaded his friend to perform his customary devotions in a constant place, because in that place we usually meet with those very thoughts which possessed us at our last being there; and I find it thus far experimentally true, that at now being in that school, and seeing that very place, where I sat when I was a boy, occasioned me to remember those very thoughts of my youth which then possessed me; sweet thoughts indeed, that promised my growing years numerous pleasures without mixture of cares, and those to be enjoyed when time (when I therefore thought slow-paced) had changed my youth into manhood. But age and experience have taught me that these were but empty hopes; for I now always found it true, as my Saviour did foretell, 'Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.' Nevertheless, I saw there a succession of boys using the same recreations, and questionless possessed with the same thoughts that then possessed me. Thus one generation succeeds another in their lives, recreations, hopes, fears, and death.''
A correspondent of the ''Gentleman's Magazine,'' June, 1798, considers that this passage may have ''occasioned'' Gray's writing the ''Ode on Eton.''"

[tags: Ode to the Death of a Favorite Cat Essays]

"A sinister note of approaching darkness in Macbeth, III. 2, 42.

''ere, to black Hecate's summons,
The shard-borne beetle with his drowsy hum
Hath rung night's yawning peal
, there shall be done
A deed of dreadful note.''
Dryden (Absalom and Achitophel, Pt. I. ll. 301, 2) employs the beetle to crush
''such beetle things
As only buzz to heaven with evening wings.''
In December 1746 Collins published among other poems his Ode to Evening, and Joseph Warton's volume including, I believe, his 'Evening' appeared in the same month and year. Collins writes:
''Now air is hushed save [where the weak-eyed bat
With short shrill shriek flits by on leathern wing
Or] where the beetle winds
His small but sullen horn
As oft he rises 'midst the twilight path
Against the pilgrim borne in heedless hum.'' "

Analysis of Shellys Ode to the West Wind :: essays papers

"The sense is 'arouse to action, call forth', as Latin provoco. Cp. Pope, Ode on St Cecilia's Day 36: 'But when our Country's Cause provokes to Arms'."

Shelleys Ode To The West Wind English Literature Essay

"ardent ambition. Gray is thinking of possible statesmen and warriors, as well as poets; although it is of poetic inspiration that the word was commonly used in a good sense. Mitford quotes Pope to Jervas (the painter), l. 12:

''Like them [Dryden and Fresnoy] to shine through long succeeding age,
So just thy skill, so regular my rage,''
where the epithet 'regular,' so singularly inept for that which is by its very nature without restraint, shows that this conventional use of 'rage' is really a misuse of it. It is employed, oddly enough, in connection with a reed, by Collins (1746) of Music in Ode on the Passions (quoted by Bradshaw):
'''Tis said, and I believe the tale,
Thy humblest reed could more prevail,
Had more of strength, diviner rage,
Than all which charms this laggard age.''
But the word scarcely in this use of it belongs to our best poetic diction, for example Shakespeare employs it thus only once, and then with a clear notion of exaggeration (Sonnet xvii. 11);
''The age to come would say, 'This poet lies':
So should my papers, yellowed with their age,
Be scorn'd, like old men of less truth than tongue,
And your true rights be termed a poet's rage
And stretched metre of an antique song.''
The word indeed belongs to what Burke calls 'the contortions of the Sibyll':
''et rabie fera corda tument.'' Aen. vi. 49,
from which, and the kindred inspiration of the Pythoness, the expression has been transferred to a milder enthusiasm; Shakespeare is nearest to adopting it when he speaks of 'the poet's eye in a fine frenzy rolling.' Milton never uses it in this way at all."