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All three of these early teachers embraced the idea of writing haiku in English. A 1964 article of Hendersons set forth clearly some of the questions and problems to be faced regarding original English and American haiku.
Hendersons was published in 1958. This expanded and somewhat revised version of has remained an excellent beginning source for understanding Japanese haiku and by extension for determining what English haiku might be. His (1965), was the first how-to book on Western haiku. He briefly discussed characteristics of classical Japanese haiku and then turned to examples of English haiku to comment on aspects of conformity and divergence in the developing Western haiku. A third haiku scholar, Kenneth Yasuda, whose 1947 book (which appeared under his , or nom de plume, Shôson) included translations of classical haiku plus experimentation of his own in English-language haiku, published in 1957. Its subtitle, Its Essential Nature, History, and Possibilities in English, indicates something of its scope. Both Henderson and Yasuda provided transliterations into of the Japanese texts, and both men inclined toward rhyming the first and third lines of their translations. Yasuda also provided titles for the haiku.
By 1960, then, the haiku had entered the radar of American poets and attracted a few disciples, mainly academics and others familiar with Japanese culture. A variety of translations, some better and some worse, were available, haiku scholarship had begun, writing haiku in English had been proved feasible, and a few souls were beginning to try their own hand at the exotic Japanese verse. Both translations and original haiku at this time were often rhymed and titled, and almost everyone tried to copy the Japanese 575 syllabic form. The foundations of an American haiku movement were laid.
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But, despite the ravages of time and human action, theextraordinary achievement of the Red Fort in plan and fine architectureis still visible today, although it is unjustly ignored.
Essay on Red Fort of Delhi in Hindi
At its centre stood the RedFort, a vast walled complex of beautiful palaces and meeting halls fromwhich the Emperor ruled with unmatched public pomp and ceremony.
Free Essays on Why Is Red Fort Builted through
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One of the interesting developments of this period began with the founding in 1975 of an English-language division of the Yukuhari Haiku Society, a venerable Japanese organization with headquarters in Tokyo, that was dedicated to yuki teikei, or traditional haiku written in seventeen syllables and using a season word. The group took seed in the San Francisco area and flourished under the care of Kiyoshi and Kiyoko Tokutomi. Close ties were maintained with the home society in Japan, but in January 1979 this group became an independent organization, the Yuki Teikei Haiku Society of the U.S.A. and Canada. The first issue of the YTHSs appeared in mid-1977. It ceased publication, but a second publication, , continued. In addition to regular meetings, which have included traditional Japanese-style events such as moon-viewing parties, the YTHS has held a retreat at Asilomar, Calif., each autumn. A southern California branch of the YTHS was formed in autumn 1997 on the initiative of Jerry Ball and meets monthly in Long Beach.
Essay on “Red Fort” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class …
In the early years interest in haiku was stimulated across the United States by several contests sponsored by Japan Air Lines. In 1964 something over 41,000 haiku were submitted to their National Haiku Contest. Seventeen contests conducted by radio stations in different parts of the country screened the entries, and five winners from each local contest were submitted for final judging by Alan Watts. The selection of Watts, not himself a haiku poet but rather an expert on Zen, to judge this seminal contest reinforced the notion that haiku is informed by Zen and undoubtedly influenced the course of American haiku for years to come. Japan Air Lines published the 85 national entries in a booklet entitled . James W. Hackett won the grand prize of two round-trip tickets to Japan. In the winter of 198788 JAL, in association with Haiku Canada and the Haiku Society of America, organized an English Haiku Contest for residents of Canada and the United States. Kazuo Satô, the top Japanese expert on foreign haiku, was a leading force in the creation of the contest, with five key figures in the East Coast haiku establishment Cor van den Heuvel, William J. Higginson, Penny Harter, Hiroaki Sato, and Adele Kenny serving as judges. Van den Heuvel was invited to Japan for a press conference to announce the winners. The Grand Prize winner was Bernard Lionel Einbond, and about 200 runners-up were chosen from among 40,000 entries.