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All three of these early teachers embraced the idea of writing haiku in English. A 1964 article of Henderson’s set forth clearly some of the questions and problems to be faced regarding original English and American haiku.

Henderson’s was published in 1958. This expanded and somewhat revised version of has remained an excellent beginning source for understanding Japanese haiku and by extension for determining what English haiku might be. His (1965), was the first how-to book on Western haiku. He briefly discussed characteristics of classical Japanese haiku and then turned to examples of English haiku to comment on aspects of conformity and divergence in the developing Western haiku. A third haiku scholar, Kenneth Yasuda, whose 1947 book (which appeared under his , or nom de plume, Shôson) included translations of classical haiku plus experimentation of his own in English-language haiku, published in 1957. Its subtitle, “Its Essential Nature, History, and Possibilities in English,” indicates something of its scope. Both Henderson and Yasuda provided transliterations into of the Japanese texts, and both men inclined toward rhyming the first and third lines of their translations. Yasuda also provided titles for the haiku.

By 1960, then, the haiku had entered the radar of American poets and attracted a few disciples, mainly academics and others familiar with Japanese culture. A variety of translations, some better and some worse, were available, haiku scholarship had begun, writing haiku in English had been proved feasible, and a few souls were beginning to try their own hand at the exotic Japanese verse. Both translations and original haiku at this time were often rhymed and titled, and almost everyone tried to copy the Japanese 5–7–5 syllabic form. The foundations of an American haiku movement were laid.

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But, despite the ravages of time and human action, theextraordinary achievement of the Red Fort in plan and fine architectureis still visible today, although it is unjustly ignored.

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At its centre stood the RedFort, a vast walled complex of beautiful palaces and meeting halls fromwhich the Emperor ruled with unmatched public pomp and ceremony.

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The essay on red fort in urdu city is bordered by Haryana on its north
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One of the interesting developments of this period began with the founding in 1975 of an English-language division of the Yukuhari Haiku Society, a venerable Japanese organization with headquarters in Tokyo, that was dedicated to yuki teikei, or traditional haiku written in seventeen syllables and using a season word. The group took seed in the San Francisco area and flourished under the care of Kiyoshi and Kiyoko Tokutomi. Close ties were maintained with the home society in Japan, but in January 1979 this group became an independent organization, the Yuki Teikei Haiku Society of the U.S.A. and Canada. The first issue of the YTHS’s appeared in mid-1977. It ceased publication, but a second publication, , continued. In addition to regular meetings, which have included traditional Japanese-style events such as moon-viewing parties, the YTHS has held a retreat at Asilomar, Calif., each autumn. A southern California branch of the YTHS was formed in autumn 1997 on the initiative of Jerry Ball and meets monthly in Long Beach.

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In the early years interest in haiku was stimulated across the United States by several contests sponsored by Japan Air Lines. In 1964 something over 41,000 haiku were submitted to their National Haiku Contest. Seventeen contests conducted by radio stations in different parts of the country screened the entries, and five winners from each local contest were submitted for final judging by Alan Watts. The selection of Watts, not himself a haiku poet but rather an expert on Zen, to judge this seminal contest reinforced the notion that haiku is informed by Zen and undoubtedly influenced the course of American haiku for years to come. Japan Air Lines published the 85 national entries in a booklet entitled . James W. Hackett won the grand prize of two round-trip tickets to Japan. In the winter of 1987–88 JAL, in association with Haiku Canada and the Haiku Society of America, organized an English Haiku Contest for residents of Canada and the United States. Kazuo Satô, the top Japanese expert on foreign haiku, was a leading force in the creation of the contest, with five key figures in the East Coast haiku establishment — Cor van den Heuvel, William J. Higginson, Penny Harter, Hiroaki Sato, and Adele Kenny — serving as judges. Van den Heuvel was invited to Japan for a press conference to announce the winners. The Grand Prize winner was Bernard Lionel Einbond, and about 200 runners-up were chosen from among 40,000 entries.


The Red Fort and its surrounding city constitute the only large-scale Mughal city planned and built from scratch to survive as a living city ..

At these early meetings every effort was made to include materials from members unable to attend, and comprehensive Minutes were sent out regularly. These Minutes formed a valuable resource for haiku scholars and poets. In fact, the HSA soon became something of a national clearing house for haiku information, and a number of specific projects were undertaken by the members. For example, when a Society survey of English reference works showed inadequate and misleading definitions, a committee composed of Anita Virgil and William J. Higginson worked with Professor Henderson to develop valid definitions for haiku and the related terms , , and . “Haiku” was defined as follows (with slight later amendments):

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Two journals have dominated American haiku, but the haiku scene has also been enriched by a succession of smaller, often ephemeral journals that have explored various dimensions of the vital American haiku movement. From its first publication, on the heels of the closing of has held pride of place. Kay Titus Mormino produced the first issue of in the winter of 1969–70. In its third year it changed from four to three issues a year. Mormino named Robert Spiess editor in 1978, and the journal’s base was moved from Los Angeles to Madison, Wis. Over the years, provided a forum for all views on the evolving aesthetics and craft of English-language haiku, featured the finest essays, consistently reviewed the haiku literature, introduced hundreds of new poets, and kept a finger on the pulse of haiku in Japan, Europe, and elsewhere. Because of ill health, Spiess turned the editorship of over to Lee Gurga following issue 33:1 (winter-spring 2002).

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Finally, mention needs to be made of haiku written within the Japanese American community, although with a very few exceptions (see the discussion of the Yuki Teikei Haiku Society, below), there has been almost no contact between English-language and Japanese-language haiku groups and only limited involvement of Japanese Americans in the English-language haiku movement. Because haiku groups in Japan are normally formed around a sensei, or haiku master, it is tempting to conclude that within the Japanese American community it is not considered possible to sustain a respectable group absent a sensei. Still, haiku and senryu groups have formed in America, often under the aegis of Buddhist temples and other Japanese cultural centers. Haiku groups that were formed in the 1930s in California continued under the even more trying circumstances of the internment camps set up by the U.S. government to isolate Japanese American during World War II. A fine collection of the haiku of some of these groups writing in the Kaiko (“Crimson Sea”) style of the avant-garde Japanese poet Nakatsuka Ippekirô was gathered by Violet Kazue de Cristoforo and published in 1997 in .[24]