The GOUD strategy adopted in the Catania Master Plan will allow the acquisition of about 430 ha of new accessible public greenspaces, an increase of a staggering 600 % from the existing 70.2 ha. This will remarkably increase the number of inhabitants who have the opportunity to access to good quality greenspaces, considering that these areas are currently abandoned, privately owned and thus not accessible by citizens. On the other hand, the cost of the proposed strategy is the provision of developable zones, representing about 108 ha (20% of the total area of RZs). Within these areas, built up zone can be at most 70% (about 75 ha in the entire municipality), while the rest must be maintained non-built and permeable, even if privately owned. This also means that it would be possible within the Developable Zones to design solutions that can enhance the overall evapotranspiration and permeable features. This will be insured by the compliance with the norms imposing the minimum amount of trees coverage and the percentage of permeable surface.
In the case of the Catania Master Plan, the attractiveness of the TDR mechanism for developers is ensured by setting the values of parameter according to real estate market values (see above). Moreover, landowners and developers will be encouraged to invest (even if in a limited portion of the RZs) in areas that are mainly zoned for public services and thus without any opportunity for development.
Many countries with increasing urbanization processes are contending with a host of land-use challenges (, agricultural land conservation, habitat fragmentation, historic preservation, affordable housing and infrastructure planning) and seek market-based policy solutions (). One potential market-based solution is the TDR, which allows severing of the right to develop land in a free-market system of willing sellers and buyers (). While some scholars have pointed to the potential of TDR to preserve natural resources at low public costs (), others have highlighted benefits of its flexibility as a market-based tool ().
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Self-development is essentially the exploration of self.
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[tags: professional development plan]
The adoption of the ecosystem services concept by urban planners is a relevant step forward in the evolution of land-use planning. Planners have also to be aware of the diversity of perspectives on ecosystem services and they have to take that diversity into account when making relevant decisions (). However, decisions oriented to ecosystem services protection and enhancement have to take into account limitations in the availability of funds for their implementation.
[tags: goals, self-development, learning]
A consideration is needed regarding the relationship between planning processes and the concept of ecosystem services. The latter could be of high value for facilitating the exchange between stakeholders involved in the planning process, increasing the consensus on shared objectives and balancing conflicts between private and public stakeholders. The communication of the role of UES may be of the utmost importance in planning process. This becomes even more crucial when resources for public land acquisition are limited, and their optimization is often seen as the most important priority for public decision makers. It is therefore fundamental to choose the most appropriate way to communicate efficiently the relation between land-use planning choices and UES. This calls for a first definition of shared common values and services provided by ES among the panel of stakeholders in the urban planning process. Maps and GIS web-mapping tool () might facilitate the exchange of information and shared values on UES under exam. This would create a higher acceptance of the co-developed planning choice, policies and accepted trade-offs. In this direction the use of simplified layout maps as the one showed in might help stakeholders and communities in proposing alternative of land uses and discussing related pros and cons.