The conclusion, therefore, is, that any government, that can, enforce its own laws, without appealing to the people, (or to a tribunal fairly representing the people,) for their consent, is, in theory, an absolute government, irresponsible to the people, and can perpetuate its power at pleasure.
Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things (monoawase). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan. By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shukō, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to speak of a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Rikyū, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Rikyū served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and serve the tea. Rikyū’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold.
Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu
In 1331, Emperor GoDaigo tried to capitalize on warrior frustrations by plotting to destroy Kamakura. He was exiled to a distant island, but his supporters fought on. When one of Kamakura’s leading generals, Ashikaga Takauji, decided to join his forces, the fate of the bakufu was sealed. GoDaigo’s army destroyed Kamakura in 1333, and the emperor escaped from exile to lead a new government. GoDaigo was a clever, well-educated man who designed innovative new policies, such as taxing breweries and regulating the acquisition of estates. But since his goal was to restore imperial rule, he gave the most important posts in government to his sons and members of the aristocracy. This left many warriors, including Ashikaga Takauji, upset and angry. Takauji rebelled, and by 1336 his army had taken the capital and forced GoDaigo to flee.
Takauji went on to found the second major warrior government, which lasted from 1336 to 1573. It is known as the Muromachi bakufu (or Muromachi shogunate) because its headquarters were in the Muromachi district of Kyoto. It is also sometimes called the Ashikaga shogunate because the shoguns were members of the Ashikaga family. On the one hand, the samurai had more power than in the Kamakura period. That was in part because Emperor GoDaigo had merged military and civilian posts. There was no longer a civilian governor who might serve as a check on the shugo. On the other hand, Takauji’s government was weaker than its predecessor. Although Takauji chose a new emperor to serve under his control, GoDaigo set up a government-in-exile known as the Southern Court that provided legitimacy to anti-bakufu armies. If a powerful samurai felt mistreated by the Ashikaga, he and his followers might declare themselves loyal to the Southern Court and rebel. This period of frequent fighting lasted until 1392, when the third Ashikaga Shogun, Yoshimitsu, reunified the two imperial courts.
Probably the most important Court TV case came a year later, when OJ Simpson went on trial for murder. But by then, televising trials was big business. The Simpson case wasn’t just huge for Court TV; it was breathlessly covered by every major network. In a 2014 opinion piece looking back at the case with a 20-year perspective, Variety TV critic Brian Lowry discussed “” on the legal system:
The witch trials era lasted less than a year.
The first Menendez brothers trial, in 1993, ended with a deadlocked jury. ; due to both that fact and because viewers were likely a bit Menendez-ed out, the do-over received far less media attention. (As it happens, they were both eventually convicted of first-degree murder and received life sentences.)
Trials in front of a judge & grand jury.
And such a trial is no trial by the country, but only a trial by the government; and in it the government determines what are its own powers over the people, instead of the people's determining what are their own liberties against the government.
"FAQ's About the Salem Witch Trials." Salem Witch Museum.
Like most Court TV addicts, I now find myself not only obsessed with the impending verdict but caught up in the theater of the trial itself. Just look at defense attorney Leslie Abramson’s hair! She’s Glenn Close in Fatal Attraction on a humid day. As for prosecutor Pamela Bozanich, she should definitely stop wearing those silly-girl bows. And will Judge Stanley Weisberg ever smile? Sustaining and overruling in that deadly monotone, peering over those little round glasses, he reminds me of comedian Steven Wright without the punch lines.