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The crisis eventually passed, and Hume remained intent on articulatinghis “new Scene of Thought”. As a second son, hisinheritance was meager, so he moved to France, where he could livecheaply, and finally settled in La Flèche, a sleepy village in Anjoubest known for its Jesuit college where Descartes and Mersenne hadstudied a century before. Here he read French and other continentalauthors, especially Malebranche, Dubos, and Bayle, and occasionallybaited the Jesuits with arguments attacking their beliefs. By thistime, Hume had not only rejected the religious beliefs with which hewas raised, but was also opposed to organized religion in general, anopposition that remained constant throughout his life. In 1734, whenhe was only 23, he began writing A Treatise of HumanNature.
Morriston takes a close look at the second premise of Craig's argument (i.e. that the universe "began" to exist, and therefore must have a cause), "with a view to determining whether it is sound." Morriston finds that the "standard criticisms of this argument are correct" and that Craig fails to defend it against those criticisms.
In 1748, An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding appeared,covering the central ideas of Book I of the Treatise and hisdiscussion of liberty and necessity from Book II. He also includedmaterial he had excised from the Treatise. In 1751, hepublished An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, a“recasting” of Book III of the Treatise, which hedescribed as “incomparably the best” of all his work (MOL10). More essays, the Political Discourses, appeared in 1752,and Hume's correspondence reveals that a draft of the Dialoguesconcerning Natural Religion was also underway at this time.
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Herbert Spencer, as is well known, borrowed most of his arguments for Agnosticism from Hamilton and Mansel, who had popularized Kantian criticism in England, while in trying to improve on Kant's reconstructive transcendentalism, his German disciples (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel) drifted into Pantheism.
Explain Aquinas cosmological argument for the existence …
cosmological arguments have recently been the subject of criticisms, at least , by physicists—Paul Davies, Stephen Hawking—and philosophers of science—Adolf Grünbaum. In a series of recent articles, William Craig has attempted to show that these criticisms are "superficial, ill-conceived, and based on misunderstanding." I argue that, while some of the discussion of Davies and Hawking is not philosophically sophisticated, the points raised by Davies, Hawking and Grünbaum do suffice to undermine the dialectical efficacy of cosmological arguments.
Explain Aquinas cosmological argument for the existence of God
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Alternatively they may criticise what Aquinas or others were trying to do when they used this argument as a proof for the existence of God and assess whether or not Hume has succeeded in his attempts. Will an analysis of how we understand cause and effect really stop religious people or philosophers from trying to argue from the way the world works back to a creator who actually put the world in motion? Candidates’ conclusions are less important than the extent to which they have considered more than one point of view and not just repeated the views of others with no demonstrable understanding.
Explain Hume s Criticisms of the Cosmological …
In order to make sense of these beliefs in terms of the question, candidates will also have to explain what the Cosmological argument is and why it is believed by some that Hume may have undermined the success of the proof, such as it was.