Think of an informative title which conveys the essence ofyour essay.

Eachextended essay must have a researchquestion.

At the same time that the spontaneous generation debate was waning, the exploded onto the scene in 1859. That theory had no immediate economic impact, and scientists have pursued it relatively free of vested-interest influence. Western science has progressed through several phases. Since those , early scientists struggled with the Church’s suppression efforts as well as the attacks of their peers, but by the Enlightenment, of the . and reigned, and many saw nature as a . The early 1800s witnessed the , which and in which approaches, , and emotions were appreciated. The late 1800s saw the rise of , which placed all authoritative knowledge within a framework of the senses (and their extensions) and logic. I have called it the rationalist-materialist paradigm, and it is still highly influential in the ranks of establishment science. Then the 20th century’s relativity and quantum theory led to something , with that , which mainstream scientists have yet to resolve.

Islamic culture enjoyed humanity’s highest standard of living in about 1200, and although Europe was rising in that period, it was also seen as backward compared to the refined cultures of the Eastern Roman Empire (which never lost the ancient Greek teachings) and Islamic lands. But late Medieval Warm Period droughts may have unleashed a scourge that would be unsurpassed in ferocious destruction until the Nazis in the 20th century: the Mongol invasions initiated by . Islam never fully recovered from the Mongol invasions. , and Baghdad was Islam’s leading city before its and wholesale slaughter of its residents. Places such as China, Russia, and Hungary lost up to half of their populations. A recent study suggested that the tens of millions of deaths at the Mongols' hands may have initiated reforestation that absorbed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to such an extent that it helped end the Medieval Warm Period. The impact was only about 1 PPM, and the coming Little Ice Age has , including the Western Hemisphere’s depopulation and reforestation due to the Spanish invasions of the 1500s.

Few dates before 1 CE will be used beyond this point in this essay, so for the remainder of this essay, unless "BCE" is applied to them, all dates will be CE dates, with “CE” dropped from them.

The research question must be clearly and precisely stated in the early part ofyour extended essay.

The GCs are merely the apex predator in a political-economic jungle filled with predators. If the GCs are , then the jungles are also filled with tyrannosaurs, , and the many docile herbivores that they feast on, and some furtive creatures . Most Americans have no awareness of the issue, but the USA’s federal government has , largely energy-related patents, according to credible sources. The for classifying patented technologies extended to photovoltaics that had efficiencies of greater than 10% or any energy conversion technology that achieved greater than 70-80% efficiency. FE devices are often called “over-unity” because they produce more energy than it takes to run them. Consequently, any over-unity device was subject to being classified. There are many areas like that, where the rationale for suppression is at least plausible, but it is then abused by evil-minded people as they protect the rackets, and the theoretical spirit of the law and the realities of its enforcement are as different as night and day. I saw it , and . Protecting the public is the , which extends to consumer "protection" laws and .

Working With Extended Essay Handbook 2013

, who had a scientific career at General Electric, also believed that the energy industry would welcome his solid-state FE device. He , expecting a tickertape parade. The opposite happened as shadowy interests destroyed his business deals, in a situation . Sparky did not take the hint and kept trying, which led to death threats. After their final threats, Sparky fled into hiding, where , and Sparky died the next week of a “heart attack.” Dying that way who played near Sparky’s level, and , and the event shortened his life. Dennis, Sparky, and many others like them lost their naïveté the hard way, but the field has been filled with newcomers who deny the reality of organized suppression as they charge forward with visions of riches and fame. It is perhaps the most common level of awareness where FE newcomers will be found. Most never develop anything worth suppressing so will never know any differently, and will enter and leave the field with that beginner's level of awareness intact. However, with enough people trying and either living to tell the tale, or others chronicling their dire fates, which , and the Internet spreading information like never before, few FE newcomers have much excuse for being unaware of the fates of their professional ancestors. The Internet is like the , or the , ratcheted up by a few orders of magnitude, and my website, this essay, and my comprise my attempt to take advantage of its potential.

What Makes Extended Essay Handbook 2013, remove?

SEE PAGES 19-20 of the Extended Essay Booklet and theAssessment Criteria for details.

. ‘The spherules from Venezuela are morphologically and compositionally identical to YDB spherules documented elsewhere . . . on three continents, North America, Europe and Asia, confirming the YDB magnetic spherule results of previous researchers. Their microstructural texturing indicates they formed from melting and rapid quenching . . . Thus the most likely origin of the spherules seems to be by cosmic impact/airburst 12,800 years ago with interhemispheric consequences. The site in Venezuela, along with one in Peru, are the two southernmost sites currently known to display evidence for the YDB impact event, and these sites represent the first evidence that the effects of the impact event extended into South America, even into the Southern Hemisphere.’

All history essay footnotes must follow the Chicago Style Guide.

The answer is that it has stood the test of time well and benefitted from a steady accumulation of new evidence set out in the proper way in the scientific literature and subject to rigorous peer review. There is neither space nor need, here, to explore this extensive literature in depth, but to give the general picture I will list the dates and titles of a few of the more important papers, with brief summaries of the conclusions and full references in the footnotes:

Extended Essay - IB History

In the 1990s, I found the dating issue enthralling and saw it assailed by fringe theorists and by . A couple of decades later, I reached the understanding that, like all sciences, dating has its limitations and the enthusiasm for a new technique can become a little too exuberant, but dating techniques and technologies have greatly improved in my lifetime. Dating the , and using 100,000-year increments to place the dates, may seem a conceit, thinking that scientists can place that event with that precision, but over the years my doubts have diminished. When and can be tested, and the findings support not only Earth’s age previously determined by myriad methods, but also support the prevailing theories for the solar system’s and Moon’s formation, call me impressed. Controversies will persist over various finds and methods used, and scientific fraud certainly occurs, but taken as a whole, those converging lines of independently tested evidence make it increasingly unlikely that the entire enterprise is a mass farce, delusion, or even a conspiracy, as many from the fringes continue to argue. There is still a , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling. As the story that this essay tells comes closer to today’s humanity, orthodox controversies become more heated and fringe claims proliferate.

An extended essay in history provides students with an opportunity to undertake in-depth research in an area of history of genuine interest to ..

The battle between materialists and religious orders over the years, in which materialist evolutionists grapple with creationists and intelligent design proponents, seems to be a feud between two fundamentalist camps. Nowhere in such battles are the abilities or wisdom of accomplished mystics found. The nature and role of consciousness, both in this dimension and beyond it, are likely far too subtle to be profitably engaged by the level of debate that predominates today. Scientists such as by the evident intelligence behind the universe’s design, but that did not mean that they believed in a God with a flowing beard. As this essay will explore later, those issues are not merely fodder for idle philosophical pursuit, but at their root lies the crux of the current conundrum that humanity finds itself in, as we .