Those oceanic changes profoundly impacted Earth’s ecosystems. Not only did most warm-climate species go extinct, at least locally, but new species appeared that were adapted to the new environment. about 35 mya and were replaced by whales adapted to the new oceanic ecosystems that are still with us today: , which include dolphins, orcas, and porpoises; and , which adapted to the rich plankton blooms caused by of the new circulation, particularly in the . Sharks adapted to the new whales, which culminated with in the Oligocene. With the land bridges and small seas between the northern continents unavailable in colder times, the easy travel between those continents that characterized the Eocene’s warm times ended and the continents began developing endemic ecosystems. Europe became isolated from all other continents by the mid-Eocene and developed its own peculiar fauna. At the Oligocene’s beginning, the was no longer a barrier between Europe and Asia. More , although from competition, an extinction event, or other causes is still debated, and competition is favored. About half of European mammalian genera went extinct, replaced by immigrants from Asia, and some from North America via Asia.
So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.
As land’s surface area shrank, the continents became wetter, as all land became relatively close to the oceans. In the late Jurassic there was a cooling period, the coldest time of the entire Mesozoic, with even some mountainous and polar glaciation, but end-Jurassic volcanism kept carbon dioxide levels high and the climate warmed. Warm-climate plants during the Cretaceous, and forest went all the way , which has fascinated scientists as they try envisioning a biome which was in the dark for nearly half the year. The Cretaceous was generally a hot, wet time on Earth.
Kate Daniels uses the iconic photo of the child, hurt in a napalm attack on a Vietnam village who is screaming in pain and fear, to show the extent of the suffering that innocent civilians have to go through in war time.
What is an interesting cold war question for extended essay?
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Essay on the Cold War: it’s Origin, Causes and Phases
The greatest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, . If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful? Plenty. Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science. With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay. I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay. I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible. For example, I use “seafloor” instead of “,” and if a non-specialized term will suffice for a scientific concept, I will often use it.
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Noam Chomsky, professor of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the son of an émigré Hebrew scholar, addressed the issue of the moral responsibility of intellectuals in a special supplement in the New York Review of Books in February 1967. Based on a thorough examination of U.S. policy in Vietnam, he judged that it was genocidal in conduct and imperialist in intent. Like other intellectuals on the left, he viewed U.S. involvement in Vietnam as neither an aberration nor a simple mistake but rather as part of a larger design to extend American hegemony. Chomsky examined the role of the intellectuals in World War II, particularly those in Germany and Japan who failed to speak out against the atrocities committed by their respective governments. Considering the relative freedom of Western societies, he argued that academics and intellectuals had a responsibility to “seek the truth hidden behind the veil of distortion and misrepresentation, ideology and class interest, through which the events of current history are presented to us.”