Essays in Theology and Culture by Robert W

137 in speaking of John XXII’s successor as a Franciscan academic theologian.

448"Ordained Minister" §58 = repr. 44-45, stressing Loehe's distrust of democracy and support for episcopacy as found in Scripture, i.e., identical with the presbytery; Pragman 132-36. See Loehe's Three Books About the Church (1845; trans. 1908; Philadelphia: Fortess, 1969); Aphorismen über die neutestamentichen Ämter: Zur Verfassungsfrage der Kirche (1849), rev. ed. Kirche und Amt: Neue Aphorismen (1851); S. Hebert, Wilhelm Löhes Lehre von der Kirche, ihrem Amt und Regiment: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Theologie im 19. Jahrhundert (Neuendettelsau; Friemund-Verlag, 1939); J. L. Schaaf, "Loehe's Relation to the American Church," diss. Heidelberg 1962.

447"Ordained Minister," §45 = repr. p. 39-40; Pragman 136-37. K. Scholder, RGG 3rd ed, 6 (1962) 1401-1403, notes Vilmar's stance against a Kurhessen-Waldeck "Summepiskopat" that introduced the Church of the Prussian Union in some regions and his stand for separation of church and state. Such views led to the "Renitent" or resistence movement in 1873, some of whose members emigrated to America. Vilmar regarded statements in the "Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope" (69-70, 72) about congregations in emergencies electing and ordaining ministers as "superfluous remarks" for an "inconceivable" situation, the absence of all pastors called by pastors (Schlink, Theology of the Lutheran Confessions, [above, n. 442] 244 note 12). At Treatise 72 the Kolb and Wengert ed. has not added the phrase to which A. C. Piepkorn called attention in Eucharist and Ministry, 110-11, note 14, adhibitis suis pastoribus, "the church retains the right to choose and ordain ministers using their own pastors."

437Lowell G. Almen, "Law and Koinonia: An Overview of the Structures and Ministries of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America," paper Dec. 2, 1999, quotation from p. 1. See further The Lutherans in North America, ed. E. Clifford Nelson (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975), where in the section on the years 1650-1790 T. G. Tappert takes up clergy on 43-49, and for 1790-1840 H. George Anderson, 102-5 and 125; see also "Theological Education," 104-8, 129, 204-6, 284-92, 432-34, 520.

David Kipp and Lothar Krauth (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1988); “Some Points of Eschatology.” Explorations in Theology: I.

52. For most of its history, Lutheranism had no worldwide structural realization. A growing sense of a need for international Lutheran solidarity led first to the gathering of individual Lutherans in the Lutheran World Convention (1923) and later to the organization of Lutheran churches in the Lutheran World Federation (1947). As noted earlier, the LWF does not define itself as a church, but as "a communion of churches which confess the triune God, agree in the proclamation of the Word of God and are united in pulpit and altar fellowship."72 As a communion of churches, the LWF acts on behalf of its member churches in areas of common interest such as ecumenical relations, theology, humanitarian assistance, human rights, communication, and various aspects of mission and development,73 but does not perform the full range of ecclesial actions, does not have the authority of a church, and is not structured as a church. The LWF is headed by a President and a General Secretary who are not understood as pastors of world Lutheranism. The LWF has, however, exercised what amounts to discipline in relation to its German-language churches in Southern Africa during the apartheid era, and was the organ by which a consensus of its member churches was formed around the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. The LWF is a realization of the koinonia of salvation, even if not in itself church.

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These, my Brethren, are the Powers of Spiritual Wickedness, with which we are to contend; and deservedly too they merit our utmost Consideration, and are absolutely necessary for a right Establishment of the Faith, that the Approved may be made manifest, and the Reprobate detected. And for this Cause have they obtain'd a Sufficiency, and are endued with a wonderfull Facility of inventing and maintaining their Errors. Nor is this to be look'd upon as an extremely difficult Matter, or very hard to be explain'd. For even in profane andsecular Writings we have Instances of it's being practicable. At this Day we see the Fable of thrown into quite another Form, new Matter being artfully adapted to the Verses, and the Verses nicely fitted to the new Matter. From this Fountain also did extract the Tragedy which he names And a Relation of mine by Way of Amusement in his leisure Hours has after the same Manner wrote a Comment uponTable. There are also who are call'd Persons that applying to some other purpose the Shreds of Verses they have pick'd up and down from the Works of do from thence compose a different Poem. And indeed the Holy Scriptures will more abundantly supply the Authors of such Compositions with proper Materials for their Designs. Nor will I scruple to affirm, that the Scriptures themselves are so disposed by the Will of God, as to afford Matter for Hereticks to work upon, when I read that Heresies must be, and which cannot posibly be without the Scriptures.

Essays in Theology of Culture: Robert W

Peter Brown, The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 53-60.

These LDS church members take the view that, like David of the Old Testament, it's possible for accomplished and respected men to occasionally make a mistake. They hope for the day when the LDS church will no longer defend Joseph Smith's behavior in polygamy as appropriate. Although sometimes difficult, these members kindly and gently stand for their principles. One member tells how during a discussion of Joseph Smith's polygamy, she expressed her feelings by simply saying, "I don't want to make a big deal of this, but I just want you to know that I don't think this was appropriate, or of God".

Essays In Theology Of Culture by Robert W

232. Because the ministry is a matter on which Lutherans, while having certain confessional and theological commitments, possess degrees of flexibility to meet changing situations and needs in church, society, and culture, there have periodically been studies and action on the topic by Lutheran bodies. In the course of the 1970s, the predecessor bodies of the ELCA all adopted the term "bishop," which was carried over into the ELCA.451

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210. Pastor aeternus taught that "a primacy of jurisdiction over the whole church of God was immediately and directly promised to the blessed apostle Peter and conferred on him by Christ the Lord."396 Furthermore, "whoever succeeds to the chair of Peter obtains, by the institution of Christ himself, the primacy of Peter of the whole church."397 It also taught the Roman pontiff is the successor of Peter, vicar of Christ, head of the whole church, and father and teacher of all Christian people. He has been given full power to rule and govern the universal Church. Consequently, "the Roman church possesses a pre-eminence of ordinary power over every other church. And that this jurisdictional power of the Roman pontiff is both episcopal and immediate."398 The Council added that this power of the supreme pontiff does not detract from that ordinary and immediate power of episcopal jurisdiction by which individual bishops govern their particular churches. Nevertheless, because of the premature adjournment of the council, the theology of the papacy was not inserted into a larger theology of the episcopacy.

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20Miroslav Volf, After Our Likeness: The Church as Image of the Trinity (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998) and "Kirche als Gemeinschaft: Ekklesiologische Überlegungen aus freikirchlicher Perspektive," Evangelische Theologie 49 (1989) 52-76. Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, An Introduction To Ecclesiology: Ecumenical, Historical and Global Perspectives, Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press (2002).