Apparatus 0.5m2 frame quadrat 2 marking poles Tape measure Method This investigation will be conducted when the tide is low on the rocky shore at Scarborough.
In order to record a sample of the species along the rocky shore, an interrupted belt transect will be used to ensure the sample is representative of the whole population and so that the method is not too time consuming....
The 5 major zones of a rocky shore are the Supra-littoral zone, Upper littoral, the middle littoral zone, the lower littoral zone and the sub-littoral zone.
Algae, on the other hand, living in the spray and high tide zones can dry out yet survive. Consider three that live on our upper rocky shore, sp. (probably ), the monofilament green alga and All of these will lose considerable amounts of water when exposed to the air and sun. The thin blades of can dry enough to become stiff and brittle and
Also tips for doing a rocky shore study.
, and are three environmental variables that contribute to desiccation, and all can change rapidly. Winter freezing is generally not a problem along our rocky shore, but humidity and summer heat modified by wind and seasonal fog, can have their effects. Wind and fog may moderate the effects of solar heat, wind by evaporative cooling, fog by blocking direct sunlight and by reducing evaporation from body tissues.
Temperature and desiccation are thought to be the limiting factors for the upper distribution of the mussel . The internal body temperature of these sessile bivalves may reach more than 30ºC on a sunny day, producing stress. There are a multitude of physiological and behavioral adaptations to deal with stress which allow animals and algae to reach an optimum tolerance for heat that does not exceed the cost of living in their particular niches. For example, on hot days the body temperatures of many animals in the high intertidal, including mussels, can rise to the point of heat shock, a condition that often produces so-called heat-shock proteins (stress proteins). These proteins, induced not only by heat but other stresses as well, may offer protection against stress by reducing the aggregation of damaged proteins and by restoring those that are mildly damaged.
What Are Rocky Shores? Essay - 644 Words
Native Americans mined copper on the shores of Lake Superior in prehistoric times. Between 4,000 and 1,200 B.C., copper jewelry and implements from Wisconsin and Upper Michigan were part of a trade network that stretched from the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf Coast, giving rise to the name "Old Copper Culture." You can see several of these artifacts here on the Turning Points site.
Rocky Shore Investigation Essay -- Papers
Animals that crawl or walk can avoid heat stress by moving to areas shaded by other organisms or into rocky crevices. The picture to the right shows the lined shore crab , which, in our area, lives high in the intertidal, tucked into a narrow rocky crevice where it is not only sheltered from sunlight but also from predators such as shorebirds. The small sea cucumber, , can be found sheltered deep in mussel beds where it is shaded, the air remains more humid, and it is protected from predation.
Rocky shore habitat - Marine Biodiversity Wikibring water for moisture and food in the form of nutrients and plankton, but organisms living along the outer rocky coast both depend on and are at the mercy of pounding surf. The relentless beating by waves during winter storms can dislodge organisms. The byssal threads of mussels, which are normally substantial anchors, can give way, allowing the animals to be ripped from the rocks and die in the surf. They may also be smashed into oblivion by drift logs carried onto the rocks by breakers. Some organisms have adapted well to rough water. Seaweeds such as (pictured above) and the strap seaweed, , have tough but flexible stipes (stems) that give with the waves. The stipeless sea cabbage, , has a highly branched holdfast to secure it to the rock surface. Most notable is the sea palm, , which resembles a miniature palm tree and grows only on the seaward side of the most exposed rocks where wave shock is extreme. This rugged seaweed has a hollow but tough and giving stipe and a highly branched holdfast that cements the alga to the rocky substrate. Other adapted algae are the calcareous, encrusting corallines that, with no protruding parts, may be essentially immune to wave shock.
The rocky outer coast with its rich diversity of niches and colorful organisms is a draw for visitors, whether or not they know much about the living things they are looking at or why they reside there. It is the hope of the people at WEBS that articles such as the one you have just read will enrich the experience of those who come to see the shoreline between the Capes.
A rocky shore is an intertidal area that consists of solid rocksAt first glance, the natural and obvious assumption is tides. But the actual reasons are much more complex and, historically, have been the subject of controversy. The Stevensons’ rejected tides as a direct cause, saying that zonation results from the air-water interface and various gradients, such as light penetration, below the surface and other factors, such as spray, above the surface. Their premise was that zonation was caused by influences related to tides, but not the tides themselves. Doty and others, on the other hand, attributed zonation more directly to tides, emphasizing that of all the environmental factors such as temperature, wind, rain, and waves that may be important to zonation, only tides vary uniformly with the biological zones. More recently, Benson (2002) has discussed other historical perspectives on studies of zonation, and more up to date summaries of the causes of these biological stratifications are presented in books such as, Pacific Seashores (1977), Seashore Life of the Northern Pacific Coast (1983), and Between Pacific Tides, 5th edition (1985).
The zones listed above are only convenient labels that give us verbal handles on very complicated biological circumstances that know no distinct boundaries and vary with time and geography. It is recognized that tides do play a part, but there are a multitude contributing influences. The shore zone between the tides – the littoral zone – is an ecotone, a transition from sea to land, and like other ecotones, such as the abrupt change from forest to grassland, there are edge effects where certain species spend most or all of their time in this transitional habitat. Along this edge, the tides and the other environmental forces that play on the intertidal zone have created innumerable ecological niches, a term that includes not only the physical space in which an organism lives, but how it lives in relation to other organisms and all the vagaries of its physical environment. A niche is how an organism functions in a community. Species compete for these niches – no two species can occupy the same niche at the same time, at least not for very long – but because there are so many niches in the rocky intertidal habitat, there are often a lot of species that live between its upper and lower reaches. We will take a look at the some of the governing factors that result in this diversity, and how some organisms have adapted to their individual littoral environments.